Terms of Reference (ToR)
Call for Consultancy
“Assessing the provision of safe transportation for women workers in the private sector” and “the provision of gender sensitive worker bus services”
Tamkeen for Legal Aid and Human Rights is an independent, neutral non-governmental organisation, established on October 10th, 2007, which aims to strengthen the exercise of basic rights and freedoms by all segments of society, especially marginalised population, including children, women, refugees, workers, people with disabilities, and others, in accordance with national legislation and international covenants. Tamkeen specialises in working to enhance the protection of workers, whether Jordanians, migrants or refugees, as well as combating human trafficking and strengthening social protection and the rule of law.
Tamkeen works on building the capacities of governmental and non-governmental agencies, providing services and consultations to those in need, empowering them and informing them of their rights and duties, and providing specialised programmes in the field of human rights, by raising public awareness about the rights and duties of all relevant parties. In addition, Tamkeen reports and studies on topics related to its specialisation.
Tamkeen works to enhance cooperation and coordinate efforts between various stakeholders such as: national bodies and institutions, associations and civil society organisations, in addition to activists and workers in the protection of human rights field. Tamkeen also works to establish relationships and partnerships with organisations in other countries in order to protect the rights of Jordanian and non-Jordanian workers.
EuroMed Feminist Initiative (EFI) in partnership with Tamkeen for Legal Aid and Human Rights, and Business Development Centre (BDC) are implementing in Jordan a second phase of Madad for Women program, titled “Towards stronger economic participation of women in Jordan” funded by the European Union (EU) Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian Crises, the “EU Madad Fund”. The overall objective of the program is to contribute to women´s economic participation at the labour market. The project is implemented in nine areas: East Amman, Jerash, Ajloun, Irbid, Ramtha, Zarqa, Azraq City, Ain Al Basha and Karak.
Scope and objectives of the Consultancy:
Tamkeen for Legal Aid and Human Rights seeks to hire a consultant to conduct an assessment on the extent of provision of safe transportation to women by the private sector employers, as a form of protection and support for women’s access to the labour market. This assessment aims to shed light on the importance of having safe transportation for working women and its impact on their access to the labour market, their continuity to work, and to increase their economic participation. The consultant will evaluate the transportation services provided by the private sector to employees, track best practices and lessons learned, and highlight how the presence of safe transportation increases women’s participation in the labour market, their retention in it, and how the absence of means of transportation affects women’s work and lead to their withdrawal from the labour market. The consultant will prepare a presentation based on the key findings to be used in the meetings and consultations, which will be held with employers and governmental sector. The consultant will have to participate in 10 meetings and 2 consultations to present the findings. Moreover, the consultant will use the assessment to map relevant private sector employers, and to develop the eligibility criteria for the selection of employers for the provision of gender sensitive Workers Bus Services planned under the program. Moreover, the consultant is expected to develop a professional charter to be signed with the selected employers.
The absence of an effective public transportation system is a problem that everyone suffers from regardless of their gender. However, the challenges faced by women when using public transportation are greater when compared to their male peers. Harassment and fear of harassment are at the forefront of these challenges, followed by the lack of safe and gender-sensitive transportation in light of the social roles associated with women and men, among many other social factors. In addition, the high costs of transportation drain a significant portion of the workers’ income, which is reflected in women more due to the wage gap. Since women tend to work in low-income jobs, they are often unable to buy their own cars, or use safer means of transportation for them, such as smart applications cars.
These challenges reflect negatively on the ability of women to enter and stay in the labour market. Many women are reluctant to join some jobs and professions due to the high costs of transportation, its ineffectiveness, and its safety, especially if the work is in a different governorate than where they reside. This is reflected in the low economic participation of women in the labour market, which recently constituted 14.7% of the total economic participation in Jordan.
Even though women represent one of the largest segments of public transport users, women face many barriers that limit their mobility and navigation in public spaces; as public transportation systems remain rudimentary and insensitive to the social situation of women in developing countries. In Jordan, the impact of a poor public transportation safety and infrastructure has caused 47% of women surveyed to decline job opportunities, according a study by SADAQA in 2018.
Studies have found that, in general, when individuals decide to choose a form of transportation (private car, public taxi, public bus, service, cycling or walking), the determining factor is not age or income, but gender. As mobility patterns differ between men and women, so do their behaviours and reasons for using public transport.
Moreover, the cost of transportation is relatively high. Indeed, women have expressed that transportation costs are high compared to their wages. According to SADAQA’s study, 42.1% of women spend more than two dinars/ day, with a monthly total of not less than 50JDs/month for transportation. Due to the fact that women’s wages are lower than those of their male counterparts, the proportion of income spent on transportation by women is higher, as they spend an average of 30% of their income on transportation. Since women are seldom seen as ‘primary breadwinners’ in comparison to male heads of household, even if the option of purchasing a private car was possible, the male would be given priority for its usage.
Several aspects of the public transportation system in Jordan create vulnerabilities for a woman utilising this service on her own, namely: unreliable bus schedules, aggressive cultural behaviours and expectations, harassment, and intrusion of personal space, and far walking distances to get to and from pick-up stops. These inconveniences not only place women in positions of vulnerability but expose them to potential harassment.
Another aspect is the road safety. Many women who avoid using public transportation opt for small busses that are driven by members of the community, and who transport several members from that geographical area. These busses, however, aren’t allowed to transport people for a fee; therefore, they take rural, unpaved, and unsafe roads to avoid being pulled over by policemen, who may force them to pay a fine for breaking the law. This endangers women and increases the possibility of accidents. Additionally, most of these busses lack periodic technical checks and repair, as they aren’t monitored by official authorities.
The assessment methodology should be based on the following:
- Desk study: The theoretical aspect of the assessment, in which the information related to the subject matter of the evaluation is analysed by a wide range of sources (books, studies, scientific articles, websites, research, previous experiences at the local and international levels, etc.), including sources issued by governmental institutions, local media, non-governmental organisations, journalists, economic institutions, and other previous materials relevant to the assessment subject.
- Data Collection: which includes the following:
- Mapping and conducting interviews with private sector companies that provide transportation for workers, to discuss the mechanisms and the importance of providing transportation, the extent of its safety and the expected cost.
- Interviews with working women who have transportation provided by their employers, and others who do not have transportation, to talk about the challenges and difficulties they face while using public transportation. In addition to conducting interviews with women for whom the transportation system was recently implemented, by employers, to investigate the differences between the periods in which transportation was not available and the periods in which it was available, for women.
- The production of the assessment report which includes: executive summary of key findings, methodology, findings and analysis, lessons learned and best practices, recommendations, and appendixes.
- The production of a presentation based on the assessment report with key findings and recommendations to be used in meetings with private sector employers and for advocacy actions.
- A final work plan that defines the timeline, the established methodology, the conceptual framework, a list of assessment terms to be employed, a list of sources and previous materials, and any clarifications or modifications to the assessment’s objective and methodology.
- A proposal for the assessment’s outline including the division of chapters.
- Data collection tools that will be devoted to the assessment.
- Progress reports on data collection process including conducted interviews.
- The first draft of the assessment, which will be reviewed by specialists from the project partners.
- Selection criteria of the companies which will be provided with the bus service.
- A short summary of the assessment and a presentation of the results.
- Participation in 10 meetings with employers to examine their attitudes towards the provision of safe transportation for women workers.
- Assessing and determining the eligibility of private sector companies to receive the bus service (list of suggested employers).
- Analysis reports for mapping private sector employers based on the meetings.
- The final copy of the assessment.
- The participation in 2 consultative meetings with government bodies and private sector employers.
- The development of a professional charter for the provision of gender sensitive worker bus services within the framework of the program, which includes:
- The responsibilities of employers, including the incurred costs, means of transportation used, guidelines for the service in terms of locations covered, and safety procedures.
- Rights and responsibilities for the workers in terms of their share of costs, whether it will be deducted from their salaries or paid separately; guidelines on the usage of the service to ensure the safety of workers and the maintenance of the service.
- A safeguarding policy component on anti-harassment.
Management and Monitoring
The consultant shall have direct communication with Tamkeen’s management team and provide weekly updates on the progress of the work. Each step of the analysis shall be consulted with and approved by EFI’s management team.
A detailed timetable will be agreed upon with the consultant upon selection. The assessment must be conducted between August and October 2022. The final assessment report shall be provided by the end of December 2022, with an executive summary, and the presentation of key findings and recommendations. The meetings with the private sector employers are expected in September 2022, where the list of employers for the provision of the gender sensitive worker bus services is developed along with the draft professional charter to be signed with them. The two consultations with the government representatives and employers are expected on January 2023.
Qualifications or experience required of the consultant
- PhD or at least a master’s degree in economics, development, gender studies, or any related field.
- A minimum of 8 to 10 years of practical experience in scientific research with emphasis on experience in conducting research in the field of humanitarian issues, economics or transportation.
- Excellent writing and analytical skills, including the ability to articulate complex societal issues to a wide audience from different cultures and backgrounds.
- Proven experience in writing and preparing research and reports, where some of the previous works have been published by accredited bodies.
- Professional competence and mastery of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
- Mastery of Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint. Knowledge of data visualization software, such as dashboard and tableau is a strong asset.
- Excellent written and oral communication in English and Arabic is essential.
Deadline for Application
Interested candidates are requested to submit an application with the following:
- Expression of Interest Letter
- CVs of the Consultant and the assistant if needed with samples of previous relevant work
- A proposed detailed methodology for the assessment and other tasks
- Draft of a proposed action plan
These files should be sent by e-mail to: ( email@example.com ).
 Jordan country status report 2021, by the Economic and Social Council of Jordan http://www.esc.jo/Documents/669ef071-5716-4888-9bcf-284290138a4c.pdf
 According to International Labour Organization (ILO), this has reduced women’s participation in the labour market by 16.5%,
 ‘‘Working Women in Sectors of Secretary, Beauty Salons, and Supportive Health Services’, Tamkeen Fields for Aid, 2015. 26 Online: http://tamkeen-jo.org/upload/Working_Women_In_Jordan-_English.pdf